Earth Science

Did Water on Earth Come From the Moon?

The origination of water on the earth has long been a quandary for scientists, but a new research published in the journal Natural Astronomy poses a new theory.

Scientists from the University of Münster in Germany are suggesting from their study that the debris of a Mars-sized body called Theia which has been thought to form the moon also brought water to our planet. The Theia theory is called the “giant impact hypothesis.”

Since our planet is thought to have formed in a dry inner solar system which lacked substance, scientists have long been unable to figure out where the source of water originated.

“The formation of the moon and the origin of Earth’s water are two of the fundamental open questions in cosmo-chemistry,” Gerrit Budde, the study’s lead author, told Newsweek. “Unraveling these processes is essential to understand the early evolution of the solar system, the formation of planets and the development of life.”

The solar system split in half

Scientists have previously surmised from the little they know about the world’s origin that the solar system was split in half for the first million years – that is, if their timeline is correct. When Jupiter formed, it was like a barrier against the exchange of materials between the inner and outer regions. Most of what they know about these matters is speculation, however.

The outer solar system was populated by meteorites containing water-rich “carbonaceous” material. Meanwhile, the inner solar system was filled mostly with non-carbonaceous meteorites that lacked water.

One of the more popular explanations for where the Earth first got water is that the “carbonaceous” bodies from the outer solar system brought large amounts of carbonaceous material to the earth. This explanation is still yet to be proven, however, and scientists haven’t been able to figure out when it could have happened or what the quantities involved may have been.

Scientists have attempted to get to the bottom of this issue by analyzing data on variants of a silvery-white metal called molybdenum which they obtained from a meteorite as well as terrestrial rock samples.

Fortunately, isotopes, which are variants of a chemical element that differ in the number of neutrons, allowing the scientists to clearly distinguish between carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous materials, which has given them slight leeway in discovering the truth.

“By comparing the molybdenum isotope composition of Earth and meteorites, for the first time we were able to constrain the timing and amount of the addition [of] outer solar system material to the Earth, as well as the origin of the moon-forming impactor and Earth’s water,” Budde said.

“In short, Earth’s water was delivered by water-rich carbonaceous material that derived from the cold outer solar system, probably beyond the orbit of Jupiter,” he said. “This happened relatively late at the end of Earth’s main growth history, and this material was delivered most likely by the giant impactor—Theia—that also caused the formation of the moon.

In turn, this means that the impactor itself originated from the outer solar system—it is generally assumed that Theia originated in the inner solar system near the Earth.”

All in all, it’s clear that there is much more to this issue than meets the eye. With so many things unclear about how our planet came to be, it makes one speculate about the theory of one Designer who planned it all.

The origination of water on the earth has long been a quandary for scientists, but a new research published in the journal Natural Astronomy poses a...

City Life Science

Women Think Better in Warmer Rooms, Study Suggests

While the study hasn’t been completely conclusive, recent findings have suggested that women think better in warmer rooms while men work better in lower temperatures ones.

Such findings may cause workplaces to think more deeply about their room temperatures and the effect it has on employees’ productivity.

The study occurred in Berlin where 542 students were recruited by researchers to take math, cognition, and verbal tests. Forty percent of the participants were female. First, the tests were taken in a room kept at 61.14 F, but then they were taken in another room at 90.63 F.

Overall, the women performed better on math and verbal tests in the warmer room while the men did better on those tests in the colder room. However, the cognitive tests were unaffected by temperature.

Warmer is better for everyone

“Our findings suggest that gender-mixed workplaces may be able to increase productivity by setting the thermostat higher than current standards,” the authors wrote.

Study co-author Agne Kajackaite, head of the Ethics and Behavioral Economics research group at WZB Berlin Social Science Center, told Newsweek: “There have been many studies showing that women prefer higher indoor temperatures than men. However, nobody looked at the effect of these differences in comfort on performance.

“We show that the battle for the thermostat is not just about comfort. It is much more—in our experiment, women’s cognitive functioning is the best at high temperatures, whereas men’s [is] at low temperatures. Importantly, the positive effect of increased temperatures on women’s performance is much stronger than the negative effect on men.”

Kajackaite continued: “This is just the first study looking at the effects of temperature on cognitive performance by gender. We ran the experiment with a homogeneous sample at a German university. More research looking at different groups—age, educational background, country—and different cognitive tasks is needed.”

Wouter Van Marken Lichtenbelt, a professor of ecological energetics and health at Maastricht University who has also published research on body temperature, told Newsweek that the study was written as if men had an opposite response to that of women, but “there is not one statistically significant effect observed in the data of the men.”

Wei Luo, a Ph.D. student at Maastricht University working with van Marken Lichtenbelt, confessed that the methods used were not wholly sufficient as the order of the different tests was fixed and the participants could have simply been tired. “This makes comparison between tests difficult,” said LuoHe.

The paper also lacked any information concerning participants’ clothes or the length of the tests, said van Marken Lichtenbelt, and this information could have had a significant impact on the results.

However, the results still strongly suggest that offices would be more productive if they slightly increased their room temperatures, agreed Van Marken Lichtenbelt, who also did a study in 2015 that found that exposures to temperatures outside our comfort zone could affect things like diabetes and obesity.

While the study hasn’t been completely conclusive, recent findings have suggested that women think better in warmer rooms while men work better in...

Inspiring Stories Science

NASA Finds Beresheet Impact Location on Moon

When NASA carried out a large chunk of its unmanned missions away from our planet, we are often waiting a long time to find out the results of the study.

One particular conclusion that we often hear is that there has been some form of crash, or that the particular probe or unit has been left to its own devices. A fine example of this was on the 11th April mission when SpaceIL sent up the Israeli Beresheet spacecraft.

This first-ever private spacecraft made it to the moon but had problems in the final phase of landing and crashed. Therefore, it was left on the moon with no real way of being able to save it.

NASA used its Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter to look out for the Beresheet and has now found it on the Moon. They took a snap of the point of impact, with the LROC taking a shot around 56 miles from the surface. They found a 10-meter wide smudge on the ground which, according to the experts, is the point of crash for the Beresheet.

It’s uncertain if it left a crater, or if it just dented the surface. More investigation and close-up imagery would be needed to help confirm that particular information. According to NASA, though, it’s possible that the crater the little spacecraft left behind could be ‘too small’ to have left a full crater, saying: “It’s possible the crater is just too small to show up in photos,

“Another possibility is that Beresheet formed a small indent instead of a crater, given its low angle of approach, light mass (compared to a dense meteoroid of the same size), and low velocity (again, relative to a meteoroid of the same size; Beresheet’s speed was still faster than most speeding bullets).”

Good Shot

The LRO camera which managed to get the shot has been circling the moon for around a decade. It passes a part of the Earth satellite on a twice-per-month basis, once during the lunar day and once during the lunar evening. By using a series of wide-angle and narrow-angle cameras, this manages to capture some pretty spectacular shots.

This latest find, though, could be a quite important one for making sure that in the future we know exactly where important tools sent up to the Moon have vanished.

According to NASA, though, it’s important to note that the landing site is not yet conclusive. As they mentioned, the fine soil particles which came up during descent could have created a highly reflective surface.

Others suggest that it would be gas that has come from the crash. Either way, NASA noted: “There are many clues that we’re actually looking at a man-made crater instead of a meteoroid-caused one,

“This is an important consideration, since the Moon, having no atmosphere, is constantly bombarded by space rocks that leave craters.”

So, while we might not get a definitive answer until it passes again in late May, at the moment it looks like we know where the Beresheet has landed.

When NASA carried out a large chunk of its unmanned missions away from our planet, we are often waiting a long time to find out the results of the...

Category - Science

Science

How Cold Is It? Watch Water Instantly Freezing

This remarkable video clip of the water contained in a plastic bottle instantly turning into ice when placed outside in the cold weather demands to be seen. And as this chilling clip runs all of nine seconds, we’re going to call this instantaneously icy all-natural clip The Deep Freeze.

The footage herein was recorded and released by 23-year-old Daniel Dück of Germany, while he was taking a break from his work in a supermarket in Euskirchen, a town in Germany’s surprisingly chilly region of North Rhine-Westphalia.

Freeze In 7 Seconds

As can be seen in the clip, young Dück firmly slams a filled water bottle onto a slab of snowy concrete, stirring up and water and setting off a chain reaction wherein the water is transformed into ice in less than seven seconds.

The alteration of the water from liquid to solid form begins at the top of the bottle and quickly works its way down to the bottom and resembling a fog moving vertically across a rainy sky. The yield is a silvery, solid mass of bottled ice! Can somebody say “Ice, Ice, Baby”???

The image of the lightning-fast freezing effect immediately calls to mind hyper-real scenes of elemental altering one sees in comic books and superhero movies. But upon a few chilling glimpses of the clip, one comes away surmising that the powers of Iceman Bobby Drake of the X-Men and Jack Frost, both of Marvel Comics, as well as Lucius Best aka Frozone of Disney’s The Incredibles franchise, pale in comparison to Mother Nature’s omnipotence when it comes to all things concerning weather and climate change.

We can’t even imagine so effective an image of water and ice coming from the pen of Robert Frost, whose moniker and atmospheric, nature-filled writings speak for themselves.

As the chill of winter makes its way across the United States, NOW is the time to dip into the icy depths of this elemental video clip, which can only inspire those in an appropriate climate to commence their own experiments in this positively primal, atmospheric forum.

If the climate is right, here’s what you should be doing: take a bottle, fill it with water, head outside, slam that baby onto the ground and then enjoy what you’re seeing. Oh, and keep warm while you’re doing it—and definitely make sure there’s a mug full of steaming hot cocoa (or maybe something a little stronger) waiting for you indoors—so it’s not your liquids that freeze over!

This remarkable video clip of the water contained in a plastic bottle instantly turning into ice when placed outside in the cold weather demands to be seen. And as this chilling clip runs all of nine seconds, we’re going to call this instantaneously icy...

Health Science

Research: Your Brain Has Two Clocks

One of those clocks relies on our memories of past experiences and the other on rhythm.  They are both critical to our ability to navigate and enjoy the world and our surroundings.

You have to be able to calculate when you move, anticipate the timing of future events, and adjust your attention and actions when needed.

According to a new UC Berkeley research, the neural networks that support each of these clocks are split between two different areas of the brain depending on what you need to accomplish.

Timing Is Not A United Process

It doesn’t matter if it’s music, sports, speech or allocating attention, the study suggests that timing is not a united process.

There are two different ways you can make temporal predictions and they depend on different areas of the brain, according to lead author Assaf Breska, a postdoctoral researcher in neuroscience at UC Berkeley.

When working together, both brain systems will allow you to exist at the moment and anticipate the future as well. Both Breska and Richard Ivry a UC Berkeley neuroscientist studied anticipatory timing strength and deficits of people with Parkinson’s and people with cerebellar degeneration.

It revealed that if one of these neutral clocks is not working properly, the other will step in. The study also revealed that the context of neurological patients that are impaired can adjust their surroundings to interact better in the world.

The brain uses two different mechanisms for anticipatory timing which challenges theories that a single brain system handles all our needs.  Results from their studies suggest there are at least two different ways the brain has evolved to anticipate the future.

The rhythm-based system is sensitive to periodic events such as inherent in speech and music.  An interval system offers a more general anticipatory ability that is sensitive to temporal regularities even in the absence of a rhythmic signal.

One of those clocks relies on our memories of past experiences and the other on rhythm.  They are both critical to our ability to navigate and enjoy the world and our surroundings.
You have to be able to calculate when you move, anticipate the timing of...

Cool Stories Science

Going, Going, Gone! Moon Rocks Sold For 600K!

Most of us will never experience exploring outer space to discover it’s many mysteries. Outer space and the oceans, now known as the “Blue Planet”, are the only two true final frontiers.

There are those of great wealth who are trying to make plans for commercial space flights which only goes to show how very enticing outer space really is.

A Piece Of The Moon

This brings us to the subject of this post.  What if you could actually have a piece of space in your hand?  Moon rocks have become a very strong attraction and people will pay almost anything to own one.  Well, just recently, a moon rock sold at auction in Boston for 600K!!

You might wonder why it sold for such a huge price tag.  Well, the average meteorite will be the size of a golf ball or a walnut. They are really small after entering our atmosphere because they are traveling so fast and are burned up in the process.

These meteorites are not exactly plentiful so you don’t have a lot of options for getting your hands on one. This particular lunar meteorite came in at an amazing 12 pounds which is extremely rare!

This 12-pound meteorite was put up for auction by RR Auction in Boston, MA and sold for $612,500 to someone representing the Tam Chuc Pagoda complex, located in the Ha Nam Province in Vietnam.

Where Was This Moon Rock Found?

You might think it was brought back to earth from the moon by an astronaut but you’d be wrong.  When astronauts collect and bring back rocks from the moon, these rocks become government property.

As it’s impossible for you to jump on a flight to the moon, the only way you could possibly come into possession would be right here on Earth.

This particular rock was found by Aerolite Meteorites in a remote region in Northwest Africa. It’s believed this meteorite landed on Earth thousands of years ago.

Paraphrasing Geoff Notkin, CEO of Aerolite Meteorites, they knew the minute they saw this rock it was extraordinarily unusual and about as close to a once-in-a-lifetime find as you can get.

Now Known As The Moon Puzzle

Even though the original meteorite weighed 12 pounds, it’s actually broken up into 6 different pieces with the largest weighing 6 pounds. That’s how it got its nickname the Moon Puzzle because the pieces all fit together just like pieces of a puzzle.

Robert Livingston, president of RR Auctions, said he was so proud to have the meteorite at the auction and believes this Moon Puzzle will be a great inspiration for all students interested in science for generations to come.

Another unique quality of this meteorite, it has a partial fusion crust which simply means as it entered Earth’s orbit, it burned.  In most cases, people will not usually pay 600K for an object that is burned and broken but then again, there are not a lot of meteorites available for the public.

I would have to ask myself if I had that kind of money, would I spend it on a damaged moon rock? Maybe I would do just that!

In the meantime, all we can do, for now, is fantasize and try to imagine what it would be like to travel to outer space.  We can only wonder if reincarnation really exists and come back as Captain Kirk and Spock traveling at the speed of light on the Starship Enterprise!!

Most of us will never experience exploring outer space to discover it’s many mysteries. Outer space and the oceans, now known as the “Blue Planet”, are the only two true final frontiers.

There are those of great wealth who are trying to make plans...

Science

China Grows First Plant On The Moon

Cotton seeds that were transported outside the earth by a Chinese probe for planting on the moon have finally started growing. This thus makes it the very first time that a plant will be grown on the moon.

While announcing it, images of the sprouted cotton seed were displayed by research experts from China. While the Chinese probe and the plant were on the moon.

This achievement makes China, the first to have its spaceship stationed in a distant part of the moon. This happened with a Yutu 2 landing on the 3rd of January on Aitken Basin – the most prominent crater on the moon.

Aside from growing a cotton seed, the China Probe called this surgeon, “Change 4”. With the primary purpose to achieve a set of activities. Such as examining the propensity to discover liquid, possibly water, in the planet’s poles and reaching a low lunar frequency radio astronomy research.

Growing a plant was among one of the experiments to see if plants can survive in a close-to-zero gravity pull.

China Is Out To Conquer Space

 

As the spaceship touched down on the moon, it began its experiment by watering the cotton seed. Days later, the seedling sprouted a shoot.
Although man has achieved some level of success in growing a plant in space, no one has tried this on the moon until now.

The head of the research team, who also doubles as a lecturer and dean of Chongqing University’s Institute of Advanced Tech spoke overwhelmingly of their success in a story on the institution’s website.

“We have successfully rewritten our human existence with this achievement. Growing a cotton seedling on a plane surface as the moon. Thus making it the first that anyone would ever come across whenever he visits the moon. The first of its kind,” Xie said.

The researchers are taking it a notch higher by planting a host of other plants like rapeseed, potato, fruit fly eggs, etc.

The University’s blog has reported that the experiment is designed to show the development of life in intense radiation and low gravity environments. In addition to aid in setting up a plan on how humans can build resources for new missions and projects on the moon.

The country’s desire to conquer space is not only based on how it can grow plants or resources, but China’s version of NASA also reported that Chang’e 4’s preceding mission, Chang’e 5, is to begin towards the last quarter of the year. Its purpose is to get bits of the moon for study in its laboratory.

China is primed to land on the moon in the year 2020. It will be the first of many to come. The deputy in charge of CNSA (China’s version of NASA) made this announcement on Monday in Beijing, China, during a News conference.

Cotton seeds that were transported outside the earth by a Chinese probe for planting on the moon have finally started growing. This thus makes it the very first time that a plant will be grown on the moon.

While announcing it, images of the sprouted cotton...

Animals Health Science

France Fighting For Bees, Banning Pesticides

Bee population is dwindling. That, we know. Why is it happening? No one is 100% sure, but the main suspects are pesticides.
“Why should we care?” You ask. “Fewer bees, fewer stings,” you say.
Well, NO.

Beekeeping provides pollination services and honey production. Many crops are dependent on honeybees for pollination. In the United States, bees provide pollination for more than 90 different crops, including fruits and vegetables.

So, no bees = no crops = no food. And of course that there are other implications, such as what insect would rule the skies, now that bees are gone?
So, to try and keep the bees alive, France has taken a drastic step.

France is on its way to becoming the first European country to ban five varieties of pesticides which researchers believe are the neonicotinoids that are killing the bees.
French farmers are not happy as they are now afraid their cops would be harmed by insects and pests. They are angry that no solutions have been given instead of the ones banned for use.
France has stepped one step further than the European Union which bans only three neonicotinoids. This French ban is forced not only in outdoor fields but also in greenhouses.

Like nicotine

Britain at first, opposed this ban, but they are coming around after seeing real hard evidence supporting it. Britain is also suffering from whole bee colonies suddenly dying.
In the US, researches have also found that bees have been getting addicted to these harmful pesticides. These neonicotinoids are like nicotine to the brain. It’s been proven that these chemicals have been attacking insects’ central nervous systems and male bees’ sperm count, memory and navigation abilities.

Some angry French farmers don’t see any substantial evidence to connect pesticides with bee population decline. Even FNSEA, the biggest farming union in France, said that in places where no alternative can be found, the ban must be lifted. They also said that this ban will lead to unfair competition between French farmers and other European or worldwide farmers.
On the other hand, the French public health agency, ANSES, say that there are quite a few sustainable and efficient alternatives which are already operational throughout France.
We all hope this will be the beginning of a fight for better pest control.

Bee population is dwindling. That, we know. Why is it happening? No one is 100% sure, but the main suspects are pesticides.
“Why should we care?” You ask. “Fewer bees, fewer stings,” you say.
Well, NO.

Beekeeping provides pollination services and...

Science

Welcome To The Furthest Object Found In Our Solar System

The galaxy that we live in is indeed quite a wonderful thing. Take a look around the world that we inhabit, and things like the solar system immediately feel very interesting indeed. All it takes is a quick look around to help you see that we are very much in a vast expanse of space, with so much to be found. Recent probes and studies, though, found what is being called “Farout” – the single further object we’ve found in our solar system.

This latest discovery comes after a team of international astronomers found the object located around 11.15 billion miles from the sun. This small, rounded object sits around 17.95 billion km away, then, and currently carries a rich, pink hue. The discovery was made using the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile.

310 miles in diameter, this interesting discovery is a landmark moment as it becomes the first object discovered to be more than 100 Astronomical Units (AU) from our own star. For reference, 1 AU is the distance from the Earth to the Sun. in total, this sits around 120 AU, while our furthest find yet until now was Eris the dwarf planet found at around 96 AU.

If you want a good example of just how far this is, Pluto is around 34 AU!

An Incredible Discovery

It’s also very interesting as it brings us into contact with something much further out than Pluto. It would be something very interesting to hear more about, especially as the orbits of these objects appear to be influenced via the gravity of a large-scale planet. Some, then, estimate that this could be the infamous Planet 9 which could, in theory, sit as far back as 200 AU from the Sun.

Speaking about this was co-discoverer Scott Sheppard, part of the Carnegie Institution for Science, who said: “2018 VG18 is much more distant and slower moving than any other observed Solar System object, so it will take a few years to fully determine its orbit.

But it was found in a similar location on the sky to the other known extreme Solar System objects, suggesting it might have the same type of orbit that most of them do. The orbital similarities shown by many of the known small, distant Solar System bodies was the catalyst for our original assertion that there is a distant, massive planet at several hundred AU shepherding these smaller objects.”

While this might just be one smaller discovery, it does create much excitement about what we might find if we continue to look further beyond our present limits.

We want to be better…So if you found a mistake in this article, please let us know

The galaxy that we live in is indeed quite a wonderful thing. Take a look around the world that we inhabit, and things like the solar system immediately feel very interesting indeed. All it takes is a quick look around to help you see that we are very much in...

Earth Science

Billionaire to Investigate the Great Blue Hole

There are so many strange places in the world yet to be explored. One of them is the great blue hole; it was discovered in Belize, on the eastern coast of Central America. The great blue hole is now the focus of many explorers who are determined to find out what is beneath the hole.

Currently, there is a team of scientists and explorers who plan to investigate the great blue hole. They will be going on this expedition with a full crew of filmmakers who will capture the adventure and show everything the explorers discover.

The great blue hole is located at the center of the Lighthouse Reef. Its measurements indicate the great blue hole is about 100 kilometers off the eastern coast. The site is about 300 hundred meters wide and 125 meters deep from the estimations. The past reports indicate the place was formerly a limestone cave. Over the years, the water level rose, and the cave became destroyed forming the cavern now known as the great blue hole. It is currently the second largest blue hole existing in the world.

The efforts to explore the great blue hole started in 1971; the expedition was organized by Jacques Cousteau, a French diver, and explorer. Now, the team going on this new expedition include Fabien Cousteau, the son of the explorer and Richard Branson, known for his interests in exploration and adventure. The goal of this team is to map and explore the great blue hole.

The team will be using specially designed Aquatica Stingray 500 submersible watercraft to reach depths that cannot be reached by divers. With this high-tech equipment, it may be possible to see what lies beneath the great blue hole.

This adventure will be fun; there are also many benefits. The reports from this exploration will be useful in understanding the events that led to the formation of the great blue hole. There may also be useful discoveries to help us understand how the Mayan Empire which existed in the 10th century fell. The team plans to collect water samples from the bottom of the cavern as well as soil samples from the seabed. These and more findings will be analyzed to find more details about the great blue hole.

The audience has not been left out of this expedition. You can watch the preparations and some parts of the expedition on the Discovery Channel; the shows will start running in December 2018. The expedition is planned to last for about two weeks, but it may take longer. There will be video clips captured at the bottom of the great blue hole to show the world what it looks like at those depths.

The entire expedition will also be channeled towards projecting the need to preserve the aquatic habitat and its marine life. While exploring the depths of the great blue hole, efforts will be made to avoid touching or destroying the natural settings beneath the water, shipwrecks and other objects found beneath will only be photographed without physical contact.

There is a lot to reveal, considering that the great blue hole was explored many years ago. So, we look forward to the new findings.

We want to be better…So if you found a mistake in this article, please let us know

There are so many strange places in the world yet to be explored. One of them is the great blue hole; it was discovered in Belize, on the eastern coast of Central America. The great blue hole is now the focus of many explorers who are determined to find out...

Science Tech News

NASA Voyager 2 Crosses Into Interstellar Space

NASA’s Voyager 2 probe is the second man-made object to have crossed into interstellar space. The probe achieved the feat on November 5, and is aimed to study the outer reaches of the solar system and more.

In April 2011, NASA had declared that Voyager 2 had reached the edge of the solar system, known as heliosheath. This is the region where the planetary forces of interaction cease to exist, but matter would still be bound by the effects of solar wind, that also contains low-frequency radio signals and magnetic disturbances.

Each spacecraft carries a Golden Record of Earth sounds, pictures and messages, which aims to serve as evidence of Earth’s civilization.

In September last year, the US space agency celebrated the 40th anniversary of both Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, which have been declared as our ‘eyes’ in outer space. In the case of Voyager 2, each signal take an average of 16 hours and 40 minutes to be received from Voyager 2, as well as from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, that is monitoring both Voyager missions.

Now, NASA has recently confirmed that Voyager 2 has also crossed into interstellar space. This is not the first spacecraft to have registered this accomplishment, as Voyager 1 is also deep into outer space.

We want to be better…So if you found a mistake in this article, please let us know

NASA’s Voyager 2 probe is the second man-made object to have crossed into interstellar space. The probe achieved the feat on November 5, and is aimed to study the outer reaches of the solar system and more.

In April 2011, NASA had declared that Voyager...

Science

A Giant Black Hole Merger Has Been Discovered

The total count of black hole mergers we know about today is ten. The recent addition of four black hole mergers which were previously not considered has been documented and accepted by the scientific community. Among the newly added black hole, mergers is a massive one which is much bigger than the Sun.

It is easier to understand the nature of these black hole mergers if we can establish patterns. In 2016, the first black hole merger was detected; this event was widely reported in scientific journals. It was a huge achievement in physics.

The Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) was the first agency that observed the formation of black holes. To properly investigate this discovery, the reports from the LIGO observatory period were analyzed a second time to ensure the details were in order. The information from these reports led to the discovery of the last four black hole mergers.

On July 29, 2017, scientists witnessed one of the most significant black hole mergers. These mergers are measured based on their mass, distance from the earth and spin.

It remains the largest black hole merger to have been discovered. The combined mass is very large, and scientists have reported the black holes were spinning at their fastest speeds which are unlike other mergers they have identified.

It is also the most distant black hole merger at about nine billion light-years in space. According to LIGO, the components of the black hole during the merger were identified with the code blue, while code purple was presented for other black hole mergers. The continuous studies are now making it possible to determine a pattern characteristic of each black hole merger event.

The black hole merger events may have happened following the collapse of large stars such as the Type II supernova. According to scientific speculations, it is also proposed that the black hole merger events currently happening are secondary, in follow up to previous mergers of black holes. The need for larger samples of black holes will increase the chances of identifying particular subgroups of larger holes which had been formed earlier.

The larger black holes have a capacity to draw in all objects in and around its path. This means there are more chances of mergers with smaller black holes. However, such an event is yet to be witnessed and confirmed. The bigger black holes have characteristically shorter signals; this means the random noise them emit is notably shorter. Therefore, it is important to use the proper equipment to detect the size of merged objects.

On the other hand, it is also suggested that the events witnessed and reported by LIGO are mergers between neutron stars. These events lasted for remarkably longer periods, and the signals from the neutron start were weaker thus reducing the volume of space where these events can be detected.

Going forward, the scientists can continue to work with what they have at the moment. The massive black hole merger will be under observation to define patterns. If the patterns can be determined, it will be easier to determine the space where such events are likely to happen.

The total count of black hole mergers we know about today is ten. The recent addition of four black hole mergers which were previously not considered has been documented and accepted by the scientific community. Among the newly added black hole, mergers is a...

Science

Tiny Soviet Moon Rocks Sell For Almost $1,000,000

When we hear that someone is selling ‘moon rocks’, we often imagine it’s the modern day snake oil. It’s just something that is hard to believe. If someone was the holder of some extraterrestrial rocks, then why would you ever choose to sell such an item?

It makes it easy to believe that they must be talking nonsense, then. However, with the help of an auction taking place at the moment, we might just get to see the real thing – actual moon rocks. This will go on sale at the Sotheby’s Auction House, and is expected to sell for as much as $1m when the auction takes place his week to come.

Indeed, according to Sotheby’s Auction House’ senior specialist for books and manuscripts, Cassandra Hatton, the product is legit. She said that: “You cannot buy or sell lunar material unless you have documentation proving that it can be owned by a private individual,

“As far as we know, this is the only lunar material that actually has that documentation, so it’s the only lunar sample that can be legally bought by a private individual.”

Where does it come from?

This particular lunar material is supposed to have been part of the 1970 lunar missions carried out by the Soviets. It was provided to the auction hose by Nina Ivanova Karoleva, the widow of Sergei Pavlovich Korolev. Korolev was the former director of the Soviet space program, and the rocks were then sold by Sotheby’s to an anonymous American for a fee of $442,500. These were sold in 1993, and now look to go for even more in 2018.

With a pre-sale estimate of $700,000-1m, they were auctioned on November 29th. In the end, the rocks eventually went for $855,000. This shows that the price and value of the rocks has almost doubled since they last went on sale in the 1990s.

This was not the first major sale this year either, in relation to the moon. A bag was sold by Sotheby’s last year which was supposed to have been laced with moon dust, and was used by US Astronaut Neil Armstrong during the first ever manned mission to the moon. It sold for around $1.8m.

We want to be better…So if you found a mistake in this article, please let us know

When we hear that someone is selling ‘moon rocks’, we often imagine it’s the modern day snake oil. It’s just something that is hard to believe. If someone was the holder of some extraterrestrial rocks, then why would you ever choose to sell such an...

Science

Donald Trump And His Science

Growing up, I used to listen with part-wonder and part-bemusement at some of the things I’d hear Ronald Raegan had once said. My father grew up in the United Kingdom but got to pick up on a lot of the ‘greatest hits’ of one of the more controversially-spoken Presidents of the USA.

As I was growing up to get more involved in the world outside of my toy box, I used to watch on with embarrassment at George Bush Jr. I’d feel equally embarrassed for my own nation’s leader at the time, Tony Blair, standing there like the best mate who was only invited out of guilt.

Today, though? It would appear that the current President might be among the most outrageous yet. Here are just some of his statements which fly in the face of facts which aren’t even really contestable any longer. Science is always changing and fluid, and skepticism is usually a good thing. However, some of these takes? You’d get laughed out of your earliest science classes for stuff like the following…

Super Stealth

“You like the F-35?” Trump said at a military briefing in Puerto Rico in November 2017, “You can’t see it. You literally can’t see it. It’s hard to fight a plane you can’t see.”

Hahahaha. He’s become someone who uses the term “literally” in literally the wrong way. Donald my friend, you might mean figuratively. You can quite literally see these planes, my friend. It’s not hard.

Causing Cancer One Lumen at a time

“Remember, new ‘environment-friendly’ lightbulbs can cause cancer. Be careful – the idiots who came up with this stuff don’t care.” Proclaimed the leader of the free world.

Yeah, a lot of things cause cancer that we can only know about. Smoking. Eating junk food. Constant sunlight on our skin. Light bulbs though? That seems a bit of a stretch.

Nuclear Warming

When a man like Donald Trump sits with a fellow intellectual heavyweight like Sean Hannity, you take notice. Speaking to Hannity on Fox News in July 2018, Trump said: “I know President Obama said global warming is our biggest problem and I would say that no, it’s nuclear warming is our biggest problem by a factor of about five million.”

He said a similar thing in 2015 when campaigning across Indiana, when he said: “I believe global warming is the single biggest problem in our country, but it’s made of the nuclear variety.”

Nuclear warming.

Jet Fuel Can’t Melt … Asbestos

There are many, many things which could have eventually stopped the dreadful September 11th terror attacks. However, when Donald Trump tweeted in 2012 that “If we didn’t remove incredibly powerful fire-retardant asbestos & replace it with junk that doesn’t work, the World Trade Center would never have burned down,”, that was a bit of a stretch.

I’m not sure if asbestos would have stopped them burning down. It would have probably left a good chunk of the local populace with asbestosis, though. Kinda expensive to cure – but cheap to die from!

Asbestos would have stopped the War on Terror, you see. Some of these statements are just…yeah. Come on now.

If that is not enough for you, Here is Trump bragging that he got a natural instinct to science last month:

We want to be better…So if you found a mistake in this article, please let us know 

Growing up, I used to listen with part-wonder and part-bemusement at some of the things I’d hear Ronald Raegan had once said. My father grew up in the United Kingdom but got to pick up on a lot of the ‘greatest hits’ of one of the more...

Science

So, Who Built The Great Pyramids? New Information

Built by slaves. Produced by beings of intellect far beyond our present day capabilities. Built with spiritual powers that lifted the blocks into place. Created under the instruction of some form of super-being. Formed in homage to the ‘Anunnaki’. Look around enough, and it’s very easy to find some stories about what the Great Pyramids may have been built by, or for.

However, one recent discovery claims to have come a bit closer to solving the mystery. The Great Pyramid, easily among the most impressive objects built by man, stands at a whopping 456ft in height. It’s stood for millennia, and its true creation has never been understood. We’d struggle, if not fully fail, to create something so perfect today – even with all of our tools. How, then, could some slaves have built it in homage to the Pharaohs?

Head north of the town of Luxor, and we might have some answers. A new sloped ramp has been found with two large sets of steps and a variety of post holes either side. It’s now suggested these blocks could have been brought up the ramps via sled. Using the wooden posts, many men and plenty of ropes, the sled would be pulled uphill.

According to the Egyptian Minister of Antiquities, this is evidence of a system that was in place to move and pull around the blocks. While it’s always been a suggested part of the building of the pyramids, this is the first ever found physical suggestion that this was actually the case. That’s very interesting, especially as the lack of physical evidence left behind by ramps at any pyramid has always made this seem a little odd.

A step in the right direction

As well as finding this interesting ramp system, a number of engravings were found along the slopes. These depict worker and their building campaigns of the era. It’s all very interesting, especially as the location it was found is nearby Hatnub, which was once a major home for workers and also home to a major alabaster quarry.

Many of the walls, floors and sculptures of the pyramids were made from alabaster, which would have made Hatnub an obvious place to start the transport. Indeed, it’s also supposed to date back to the time of King Khufu, which would put it in a good line of sight with the Great Pyramid’ time of construction.

Indeed, studies in the past have always pointed to the likelihood of sleds and roped being used to move the various 2.5-ton blocks used to build the pyramids. Indeed, another suggestion is that water was poured onto the sand slowly to help reduce tension when trying to pull the large stones along – supposedly enough to half the needed workforce.

While I’m still somewhat skeptical, it’s certainly one of the most interesting finds related to the Pyramids in some time.

We want to be better…So if you found a mistake in this article, please let us know

Built by slaves. Produced by beings of intellect far beyond our present day capabilities. Built with spiritual powers that lifted the blocks into place. Created under the instruction of some form of super-being. Formed in homage to the ‘Anunnaki’. Look...