Tag - egypt

Entertainment Lifestyle

The Story of Turquoise Gem

One of the world’s oldest and most famous gems is turquoise. Archaeologists have confirmed that the pharaohs of Ancient Egypt have worn a lot of jewelry with turquoise, and that Chinese artist used these stones for carving arts as back as 3,000 years ago. Today, this is the national gem of Tibet, and there is a belief that this stone brings health, fortune and protection from evil forces.

The name is derived back in the 13th century from french word „pierre tourques“, translated „Turkish stone“. This is an indicator that the material probably appeared in Europe at this time, from Turkish traders.

The stone is often called gemstone of life, and throughout history, it has been used as a holy stone, captivating power, health, and fortune. In ancient cultures, it was given to riders as a talisman, to protect them and their horses from accidental falls.

This gem is found in many cultures- Ancient Egypt, Persian Empire, Ancient China and up to Native Americans. It can be found in some important relics such as King Tutankhamun’s golden mask or sword of Goujian. Grave furnishing with turquoise was discovered in Ancient Egypt, dating around 3,000 B.C. Even older relic (dating 3,700 years B.C.) was found in China, in a form of dragon made of 2,000 pieces of turquoise. Turquoise became popular with the decline of church’s influence, allowing the use of gem in various purposes. In Persia, the gem was worn around the neck or wrist, with the purpose of protection against death. Stone was also used for interior and exterior decoration of important objects. During centuries, Persian turquoise is believed to be the most valuable. Native American tribes, including Navajo, Apache and Zuni, used this stone extensively in jewelry. Once again, it is used for it alleged healing properties and protection. Warriors placed gems at the end of arrows, in order to assure accurate shots.

Turquoise is formed when water passes through stones containing copper and aluminum. Various and complex conditions are needed in order to make possible a chemical reaction where deposits of turquoise are formed. The blue color is stronger when there is copper. Likewise, aluminum presence makes shades of turquoise more greenish. If mineral zinc is present, the gem attains yellow-green color, as it is seen rarely and only in few areas. In some cases, there are dark marks, in forms of drops or veins. This is usually associated with the presence of various iron stones. Today’s term „Persian turquoise“ is used for stones without these dark traces.

Turquoise jewelry usually has hardness 5-6 on the Mohs scale. The hardest gems are the ones found on surface sources, having the chance to dry. Softer gems resemble chalk. Natural gems are cut and polished, but no changes are made.

It can change color as it absorbs body oil and moisture. Jewelry can easily be scratched, so handle it gently. It should be kept away from harder stones, or another object. Oils, perfumes or commercial cleaners can damage even modified turquoise. Warm water with mild soap is powerful enough for cleaning.

Turquoise is considered to be a birthstone for December, besides zircon and it is stone recommended for Aquarius, Taurus and Sagittarius.

One of the world’s oldest and most famous gems is turquoise. Archaeologists have confirmed that the pharaohs of Ancient Egypt have worn a lot of jewelry with turquoise, and that Chinese artist used these stones for carving arts as back as 3,000 years...

Science

A Statue of Egyptian Pharaoh found in Cairo

It is believed that this statue presents one of the most famous rulers of the Ancient Egypt.

Joint forces of archaeologists from Egypt and Germany believe that they have found a statue of one of the most famous rulers- Pharaoh Ramses II. The statue was found in Cairo, in a part of the city where working class lives, and more precisely- the statue was found submerged in groundwater.

Egyptian minister of antiquities told that the archaeologists first found the bust and the part of a head, but further examination found the crown and upper right part of the head.

The statue is made of quartzite and estimated to be 26-foot tall. It is also believed that it could 3,000 years old. The discovery of statue was announced as significant. Although inscription containing pharaoh’s name is missing from the statue, the proximity of discovery to Ramses temple, suggest that this is a statue devoted to him.

At the same site, the upper part of the limestone statue of Pharaoh Seti II was also discovered. The statue presented this pharaoh in life size. Seti II was the grandson of Ramses II.

Egypt’s Ministry of Antiquities and University of Leipzig researchers joined forces in this project. The excavation site was quite difficult due to the presence of water, industrial waste, and rubble.

Ramses II ruled in Ancient Egypt from 1279 to 1213 B.C. His 60 years long rule expanded Ancient Egypt, from modern Syria to modern Sudan. He is often called “Ramses the Great”, due to prosperity and growth he brought to Egypt. Excavation process continues in Cairo. It is expected that the statue will be restored and exhibited at the Grand Egyptian Museum in 2018.

The statue was discovered in eastern part of Cairo, where an entire neighborhood called Matariya was built over the ancient city of Heliopolis. This city was the center of worship of Re, ancient Egyptian sun god. Ramses II was the main worshiper of this god and had built numerous temples dedicated to the sun god. One of the greatest temples was twice the size of Karnak in Luxor, but it was destroyed during the period of Ancient Greece and Rome. One of the German archaeologists told that Ancient Egyptian believed this was the place where sun god lives, so this was not a royal residence. According to this, the world was created in Matariya. On the other hand, it is believed that this ruler may have been the pharaoh pictured in Bible, responsible for the exodus of Jewish people, and from whom Moses demanded the freedom.

Back in 2006, one of the largest sun temples was found under Cairo’s marketplace. The temple had numerous statues, which weighted astonishing five tons! One of the statues suggested that Ramses II was the high priest of the Re sun temple.

Today, Ancient Heliopolis is covered with buildings. Researchers believe that more interesting discoveries are yet to be found in the city of Cairo. It is also believed that this discovery will benefit Egypt’s tourism, which had serious drawbacks in 2011 with political changes in country’s administration.

It is believed that this statue presents one of the most famous rulers of the Ancient Egypt.
Joint forces of archaeologists from Egypt and Germany believe that they have found a statue of one of the most famous rulers- Pharaoh Ramses II. The statue was found...

Entertainment Fashion

Is Fashion an Art?

Is fashion really an art? The topic everyone on the world wide web is talking about. Yes, it is! No, it isn’t?

Even in past, history has shown us that people dressed to express themselves. Everything started with ancient Egyptians. Their clothing was filled with a variation of colors, decorated with precious gems and jewels. And it was not only made for beauty, but also for comfort. Also, their clothes have been made to keep them cool while they are in the desert. Then ancient Greeks discovered some other materials and styles. Clothing in ancient Greek has been mainly made of chiton (costume), peplos (women clothes), himation (usually worn over a chiton) and chlamys (some type of short overcoat). And we are still talking about a period of time around fall of ancient Egyptian, Greek and the Roman empire. As humans evolved, and everything around them, so did fashion.

We can see in British culture from the 1830s to 1910s some really interesting changes in fashion, including changes in styles. Clothes were seen as an expression women’s place in society. Upper-class women usually tightly laced corset over a bodice or chemisette, paired with a skirt. The hat was standard formal wear for upper and middle-class men. Woman’s shoes in the early Victorian period (the 1830s) were narrow and heelless, black or white color. The heel on the shoes changed with time, like ethics and value.

Yes, we know, fashion is fashion and art is art. But we live in a modern world where everything is “growing” so fast, and we are humans and our basic need is to express ourselves. So, can fashion also be an art form? Museums are showing fashion just as much as paintings, or other art. Fashion can tell you about history, events, culture, etc. Many of the clothes seen going down the fashion runway don’t have any particular use, and many designers create impractical clothes just because they want to show their creativity, which is exactly what artist do in their craft. Designers are expressing themselves through clothes they made. I agree that there are many big brand names that make clothes that they think is going to be popular, just so they can sell and make money. But still, there are many true artists who express themselves in the way of creation. “A lot of designers collaborate with artists and incorporate features of art into their work such as Yves Saint Laurent and Piet Mondrian in 1965. Yves Saint Laurent’s dress was inspired by artist the Piet Mondrian. It was inspired by Piet Mondrian’s work which mainly consisted of thick black lines and primary colors. In this case, fashion was literally art.”

Fashion is not necessarily about labels, it’s not about brands. It’s something else that comes within the human being. What you wear is how you present yourself to the world, it’s your identity. Especially today, when human contacts are so quick, fashion is instant language. It’s a simple way of saying complicated things.

Is fashion really an art? The topic everyone on the world wide web is talking about. Yes, it is! No, it isn’t?
Even in past, history has shown us that people dressed to express themselves. Everything started with ancient Egyptians. Their clothing was filled...

Science

The Great Pyramids of Giza

The Egyptian Pyramids are some of the greatest structures that man has ever made. The most famous of them all is the Great Pyramids of Giza. At the time, Egypt was one of the most powerful civilizations in the world and certainly one of the richest. The massive scale of pyramids pointed at Pharaoh or at the king’s special and unique role in ancient Egyptian society. Men started building pyramids in the beginning of the Old Kingdom and all the way to the fourth century A.D. and the close of the Ptolemaic period. However, building pyramids had the biggest peak at the time of the late third dynasty and lasted until the sixth. That was around 2325 B.C. Egypt today, still has this magnificent structures. Even after 4,000 years, pyramids provide great insight into the glorious and rich past that Egypt once had.

 

A Little Bit of Background

The Great Pyramids of Giza are located just outside of the border line of today’s Cairo and on the west shore of the Nile River. These are the most famous and celebrated pyramids of all. There are three pyramids in Giza and the Great Pyramid is the only wonder of the Seven Wonders that is still standing. Cheops pyramid was built for the second of the eight kings of the fourth dynasty, Khufu. Beside of his magnificent pyramid, there is not much known about Khufu accept that he ruled from 2589 B.C. to 2566 B.C. The original height of this pyramid was 147 meters and the four sides have the length of 230 meters. Khufu’s queens also had their own pyramids. These three are standing right next to the Great Pyramid.  The tomb of Queen Hetepheres, the king’s mother, was found nearby and it contained an empty sarcophagus. To support and accompany him in the afterlife, the king’s relatives and officials were buried in mastabas surrounding the pyramid.

 

The King’s of the Pyramids

Kafare, the son of Khufu who lived from 2558 to 2532 B.C., had the middle pyramid. The Great Sphinx, a statue with a body of the lion and a head of a man carved in limestone, was built inside the complex of Khafare’s pyramid to guard him. With the length of 73 meters and height of 20 meters, it was the biggest statue in the ancient world. It became the image of the God Horus and was worshiped around 1500 B.C at the time of te 18th dynasty. Khufu had another son Menkaure and another pyramid for him. It is the most southern and shortest pyramid of the three at Giza wit the height of 66 meters.

Every block of stone weighs about 2.5 tons and it took approximately 2.3 million of those to be carved, transported, and put together to build the world’s biggest pyramid, the Great Pyramid. By the words of Herodotus, the ancient Greek historian, there were 100,000 men put to work for 20 years to build this pyramid. Archaeological evidence later suggested that the number of people who were building it was closer to 20,000.

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The Pyramids Today

Funeral goods and bodies were removed by vandals and tomb robbers in ancient time as well as in our modern time. The exterior of the pyramids is also plundered. Today, the height of the pyramids are no longer the same as they were before because their coverings of smooth white limestone are stripped off. Despite all that, Egypt’s glorious and rich past still draws millions of people all around the world to come to visit the pyramids.

The Egyptian Pyramids are some of the greatest structures that man has ever made. The most famous of them all is the Great Pyramids of Giza. At the time, Egypt was one of the most powerful civilizations in the world and certainly one of the richest. The...